Masguda I. Shamsutdinova's site


Suleiman Bakyrgani by Alyona Baltabayeva

Alyona BALTABAYEVA|516|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2CC BY-NC-ND 4.0“And those who come with the bad,The person in the Fire will be defeated, - Is it not according to your works that you are rewarded?” (27:90).But this topic is relatively thoroughly disclosed by the authors of tafsirs and other types of eschatological literature. According to a fair comment by F.K. Suleimenov, who has devoted many years to the study of the mutual influence of the cultures of the East and the West, "... the imagination of the creators knew no bounds in literature samples, such as tafsirs, mirajname, kisas-al -anbiya (lives of prophets)” (Suleimanov, 1997, p. 236). And in this respect a small product of the Sufi author, studied by us, adequately replenishes this series. This topic served as a means for Suleimen Bakyrgani to express his moral ideas. And the author’s fantasy, which enriched the scenes of the World End with new and highly emotional interpretations, strengthens their impact on the feelings and minds of the readers. This is the popularity of this book.The work was created in the traditional for the literature of the Muslim East form quatrains with a refrain (repeating lines at the end of the quatrains), which brings it closer to the folklore of the Turkic peoples.Suleimen Bakyrgani, treating this rather widespread topic, places the main emphasis on issues of morality, in violation of which he largely sees the root of social evil. What will the world bring to its end? Why will the end of the world come? What is the reason that people, in this case Muslims are doomed to perish?In fact, Bakyrgani emphasizes that they have not managed to curb their passions (nafs) and are mired in sins.One of the sins is drunkenness, which even selected people have surrendered to: scientists:“When the end of the time comes, what will happen then?”Thisworld will be filled with many disasters:Scientists will drink wine and surrender to fornication,In addition, there are miracles worthy of attention!” (Malov, 1897, p.2).As we know, nothing is said about drunkenness in the Quran, but the hadiths widely illuminate this vice. And in Christianity we meet many warnings about the harmfulness of libation.According to the book “Akhyr zaman”, the most difficult time will come when the so-called Dajjal (he is close to the image of Antichrist among

The Rel igious and Philosophical Creativity of SuleimanBakyrgani|517|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2 CC BY-NC-ND 4.0Christians) will appear and go to Rome, and then to Khorasan. The Quran does not say anything about Dajjal, which means that the information about him was borrowed by Bakyrgani from eschatological written monuments and folklore, in which the views and perceptions of many peoples and religions, including, of course, Christian and Jewish, intertwined.In Suleimen Bakyrgani, the image of Dajjal is associated with a huge hostile Islam force, which took up arms against Muslims. The eighty thousandth Jewish army will gather under the banner of Dajjal. Another 70 thousand hopeful Jews will join him, and this untold army will go to Mecca and Medina and fill these sacred cities.In this concept of Dajjal one can see the echo of the teachings of the Christian Apocalypse about the Antichrist. It follows that the image of Dajjal is borrowed from the Jews, and the activities of Dajjal are copied from the activities of Antichrist in the teachings of Christians. In turn, orientalists attach this word to the meaning: a liar, a deceiver.Another terrible sin, for which people expect payment at the Last Judgment, is debauchery:“When the end of time comes,Then the scientists will surrender to debauchery,Children of believing Muslims will be prisoners.The unbelievers will speak, not ashamed: Me! Me!In addition, there are miracles worthy of attention!” (Malov, 1897, p.3).This quatrain again presents an image of scientists whose unseemly behavior is estimated by the author as the most vivid indicator of the fall of morals. For scientists the East means a special relationship. They are the chosen people, possessing worldly and spiritual knowledge. And if they are indulged in such vices, then what can they expect from others?In addition, in the above quatrain again there is a connection with the previous: “the children of believing Muslims will be prisoners”. Most likely, here it is meant - captives of the soldiers of Dajjal. This capture in the Quran is also not mentioned.Further, Suleimen Bakyrgani in his work shows: when the outrage of the infidels, as punishment in response to the sins of Muslims, became immense, appeared Mahdi - the defender of Muslims. Mahdi assembled the army and went to Baghdad, the center of the Arab caliphate, and then to the sacred Mecca to worship the grave of the Prophet Muhammad. From the grave a voice is heard, pronouncing the name “Isa” (Jesus). Thus, Suleimen
Alyona BALTABAYEVA|518|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2CC BY-NC-ND 4.0Bakyrgani brings together both of these characters, who in the Muslim and Christian religions are given the same role as the defenders of the believers.It is still necessary to note here that although in Christendom the resurrection of Christ is associated with the idea of intercession and the atonement of sins, but this event is not directly and solely associated with the end of the world. This connection is conducted by Suleimen Bakyrgani. According to the author, only when, on the exclamation from the grave of the Prophet Muhammad Isa, he descends to earth and unites his efforts with the Mahdi, Dajjal will be defeated and killed.In his work, Suleimen Bakyrgani says that someone will have to kill Dajjaal as soon as Jesus descends to earth. Here is the corresponding fragment from the work of Bakyrgani:“Jesus will come down (from the sky) exactly in the year 900,Know, then they will kill Dajala.Then Jes us will make the Mahdi Imam.In addition, there are miracles worthy of attention!” (Malov, 1897, p.5).Perhaps this is directly borrowed from some tradition of Christians. But there may be another explanation: under the “murder” of Dajjal, Suleimen Bakyrgani has in mind that with the arrival of the Mahdi, Dajjal will be gradually defeated, and the earth will be cleansed of the “forces of darkness’.Suleimen Bakirgani also writes about the eclipse of the sun and the weeping of people on the Day of Judgment, which is not mentioned in the Quran, but there is in the Gospel. The Sign of the Last Day is also the appearance of Gog and Magog (Yajuj and Majuj). The so-called barbarian peoples inhabiting North Asia. About them contain certain information all three world religions. Sometimes Goga and Magog are called “infidels”. Suleimen Bakirgani writes that they will be filled with peace, but they will perish by the will of Allah from the stones, which they will be thrown by huge birds appearing on the sky.According to the Muslim teaching, before the end of the world there will be an animal called “dibbatul-asri”. This is also reproduced by Suleimen Bakyrgani:“In 900, one more event will happen:The beast of the earth will come out, and the Koran will rise.Followersof Mohammed will weep.In addition, there are miracles worthy of attention!” (Malov, 1897, p. 7).
The Rel igious and Philosophical Creativity of SuleimanBakyrgani|519|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2 CC BY-NC-ND 4.0In the Qur'an it is said that this beast will be led out of the earth by God, that is why it is called the “earthly beast”, and will be like a denunciator ofunbelievers, God's sign.So, from the quatrain in the quatrain Suleimen Bakyrgani paints bright pictures of the sins of Muslims, for which they must suffer a severe punishment, despite the intercession of such characters as Mahdi and Isa. Sinners have no mercy and forgiveness. By the will of Allah, the angel Israfil trumpets into the bugle, whose neck, according to Muslim traditions, he always keeps at the mouth, announcing the coming of the end of the world. Forty years later, Israfil will blow the horn again, and then all the people will rise again, their souls will return to the bodies.No one passes God's punishment and there is no salvation for anyone. Only the prophet Muhammad - the Messenger of Allah - can become an intercessor. Therefore, all the angels led by Jabrail, all the prophets led by Adam, all people will appeal to his intercession. Among the resurrected, Muhammad will see his mother, grandfather Abdulmutallib, his uncle and tutor Abu Talib, his ardent oppositionist Abujahedra and many otherrelatives and associates who died infidels and also pray for intercession. And in the Quran about such people it is said:“... Every soul preys its own destructionWhat I got (on the ground);And she has no protector or patron, except Allah” (6:70).According to the Koran, all family ties are terminated on this (23: 103).But the prayers of Muslims and angels and pity for their flock (ummat) will force Muhammad, in spite of any prohibitions, to intercede for them before Allah. The Lord will accept this intercession and all Muslims will be honored with paradise.This optimistic note concludes Suleyman Bakyrgani’s book “Ahyr Zaman”.But this does not mean that Muslims can sin in this world and that they are provided, guaranteed intercession before God. All the work of Bakyrgani, although it is small in size, is saturated with the passionate desire of the educator to keep people from unworthy acts demanding such high intercession. Allah is merciful, the Prophet Muhammad is good, but Muslims – God’s servants - must live a life worthy, that is, be restrained, God-fearing, and merciful to each other.Another detail of the work: in the intercession of Muhammad before
Alyona BALTABAYEVA|520|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2CC BY-NC-ND 4.0Allah, he is supported by Musa (the biblical Moses) and with him goes to the Most High. The Koran also does not say anything about this. But here, in our opinion, one can see a link not only with the fact that Musa is also one of the Muslim prophets, but also with the mission he performed as a defender of the Jewish people before God. (One cannot fail to see the whole relevance of this, at first glance, a small detail for the modern world, where one of the major factors of political and general cultural stability is the settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the normalization of relations between Israel and Muslim states).The work of Suleimen Bakyrgani contains information about the time of the end of the end of the world: he repeatedly points out that events will occur in the year 900, although he does not speak of a "reference frame", the exact time of the beginning of the calculation. This gives potential grounds for various kinds of speculation around the specified date.So, it should be noted that Suleimen Bakyrgani touched upon the problem of the afterlife and how people should live. He emphasizes that we are all mortal and will be responsible for our actions. Therefore, he warns everyone against committing unseemly acts and encourages us to go through the life given to us with dignity and honor. And the death or the time of the end of the end of the world, he points out in order to warn the dark people of his time and to teach the careless and lazy who live beyond obedience to God.As we can see from this analysis, Suleimen Bakyrgani creatively imbibed the rich traditions of eschatological literature and created an original work in which his own ideas, ideas and goals were refracted. Moreover, in addition to these works, Suleimen Bakyrgani also wrote directly on the Quranic subjects. These are, for example, Mirajnama or the story of Ismail and his family.ConclusionSuleimen Bakyrgani has a high place in Turkic Sufism, after his teacher Akhmed Yassawi. The world view of Bakyrgani was formed in full accordance with the Sufi ideas of his teacher. At the same time, the ideas of a moral and educational nature based on the Quran and hadith prevail in it. It is important to note that Suleimen Bakyrgani repeatedly appealed to images and subjects common to the religions of Islam, Christianity and, in part, Judaism. Such a desire for the invariant components of the three faiths seems to be characteristic in terms of the ethical-humanistic orientation of the creativity of the Sufi thinker.Suleimen Bakyrgani creatively introduced into Islamic ideas was also
The Rel igious and Philosophical Creativity of SuleimanBakyrgani|521|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2 CC BY-NC-ND 4.0the creation of bright, artistically authentic images of the transcendental being of man. This was not only literary in importance: eschatological pictures are one of the strongest means of moral education, especially effective in those times when Bakirgani lived and worked.KAYNAKÇAĀĤİR ZAMĀN, Taşkent 1911: Özbekistan Fenler Akademisi Ebu Reyhan Biruní Namındaki Şarkşinaslık Enstitüsü Taş Basmlar Bölümü Envanter Numarası: 436AMANGULİYEVA, Gözel(2000), Mahtumkulu'nun manevî üstadlarından birisi: Yesevi dervişi Hakim ata, Bilig Dergisi, 13, s.79-92,2000. BARTHOLD, V.V., “Turkestanskie druziya, ucheniki i poçitateli”, Taşkent 1927.BAKIRGANİY, Süleyman: Bakırgan Kitabı, Taşkent: 1991.“BAKIRGAN KİTABI” - IV RUz. - No12646 (izdana v Kazani v 1848 g.), No 16529. Kazan, 1891. – 24 s. BERTELS, E. Izbrannie trudi. Sufizm i sufiiskaya literatura. Moskva, 1965.BİCE, H. Pir-i Türkistan Hoca Ahmet Yesevi. Ankara: Hoca Ahmet Yesevi Uluslararası Türk-Kazak Üniversitesi, 2016.ERASLAN, Kemal (1991), Ahmed-i Yesevî Dîvân-ı Hikmetten Seçmeler, Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları.ZALEMAN K.G., “Legenda pro Hakim ata”, IIAN, T. 9, No 1., Seriya 5 SPb. 1898.ISLAM. Enziklopedicheskii slovar, Moskva 1991. ISHMUHAMMEDOVA, M. «Devoni Hikmatning kolezmalari. Toshkent, 1995.KAYA, Önal (1998), “Süleymān şakím Ata BaķırŞaní ve Şiirleri”, Türk Dilleri Araş- tırmaları, 8:73-209, İstanbul: Simurg Yayınları.KAYA, Önal, (2000). “Doğu Türk Yazı Dili ve Edebiyatı Araştırmaları II, Kul Şerif’in İr Hubbi Destanı”, KÖK Araştırmalar II/1, (Bahar 2000), Ankara.KAYA, Önal, (2000). “Kul Süleyman’ın Kudek-namesi”, KÖK Araştırmalar II/2, (Güz 2000), Ankara. KOMAROV, P., Hodja Hakim Suleymen Bakirgani // Turkestanskie vedomosti. – 1895. - No 9.KOMİLOV, N. Tasavvuf. Toshkent, 1996.KÖPRÜLÜ, Fuad (1981), Türk Edebiyatında İlk Mutasavvıflar, Ankara:
Alyona BALTABAYEVA|522|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2CC BY-NC-ND 4.0Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları.KRACHKOVSKYİ, I.Yu. Koran. Moskva. 1991.MATVEEV, S.M., “Muhammedanskiy razskaz o Sv. Deve Marii”, IOAIE, T.13, vip.1., Kazan 1895.MALOV, E.A., “Ahir Zaman Kitabı. Kniga o poslednem vremeni (ili o konçine mira)”, IOAIE, T. 14, vip.1., Kazan 1897. NAVOI, A. Nasoyil ul-muhabbat. Toshkent, 1968.SNESAREV, G.P., Horezmskie legendy – kak istochnik po istorii religioznih kultov Srednei Azii, Moskva, 1983.SNESAREV, G.P., Relikti domusulmanskih verovanii i obryadov u uzbekov Horezma, Moskva, 1969.SULEYMANOVA, F.K. Vostok i Zapad (Kulturnie vzaimosvyazi drevnego perioda i srednih vekov). Toshkent, 1997.TEKCAN, Münevver, Hakîm Ata Kitabı, Beşir Kitabevi, İstanbul, 2007.TEKCAN, Münevver, Hakîm Ata’nın Hz. Meryem Kitabı, Beşir Kitabevi, İstanbul, 2008.HAKKUL, İbrahim, Seyfeddin Refiddin (1991), Süleyman Bakırganiy: Bakırgan Kitabı, Taşkent: Yazuvçı Neşriyatı.
bilimname XXXVI, 2018/2, 523-525 Arrival Date: 25.05.2018, Accepting Date: 16.10.2018,Publishing Date: 31.10.2018doi:ÜLEYMAN BAKIRGANİ’NİN DİNİ VE FELSEFİ YARATICILIĞIAlyona BALTABAYEVAaExtended AbstractSüleyman Bakırgani, Orta Asya’da Müslümanlar, Sufi şeyhleri ve 12. Yüzyıl mistik şairleri tarafından çok saygı gösterilen isimlerden birisi ve ünlü Orta Asya Sufi Şeyhi Hoca Ahmed Yesevi’nin öğrencisidir. Düşüncelerinin sunumunda Süleyman Bakırgani, çok basit ve yalın bir dil ile ağırlıklı olarak Türk halk şiirlerini kullanmıştır. Efsanelerin gerçekleri gözlediğini halk arasında biyik beğeni topladı ve bu günlerde onun hakkında çok az bilgi bilinmektedir.Süleyman Bakırgani ve onun felsefi görüşleri tüm Türk dünyasının felsefi sisteminde özel bir yer almaktadır. Süleyman Bakırgani’nin hikmetlerinin ve eserlerinin ana teması, kul ile Allah arasındaki sevgidir. Allah’a olan bu gerçek sevgi, dünya ve insan için alegorik veya değişken bir aşktan ölçülemez derecede yüksektir. Bu nedenle Sufi, sevginin Tanrı tarafından bahşedilmiş yüce bir refakatçi olduğunu ileri sürmektedir.Bu yazıda Süleyman Bakırgani’nin dini ve felsefi yaratıcılığıele alınmaktadır. Süleymen Bakırgani’nin sözlerinde yer alan sevgi, aydınlanmaya ve ruhsal mükemmelliğe götüren büyük bir yola sahiptir.Eskatolojik resimler, özellikle Bakırgani’nin yaşadığı ve çalıştığı dönemlerde etkili olan en güçlü ahlaki eğitim araçlarından biridir. 12.Yüzyılda yaşamışolan Süleyman Bakırgani, Orta Asyabaşta olmak üzere Müslüman ülkelerin diğer bölgelerinde de çok saygın bir mistikşair, mutasavvıf ve Sufi şeyhlerinden biridir.Türk Sufizmindeönemli figürlerden biri olarak SüleymanBakırgani, hocasıAhmed Yesevi’den sonra haklı olarak yüksek bir mevkiye sahiptir. Bakyrgani’nin dünya görüşü, öğretmeninin tasavvufi tasavvurlarına tam aDr. Öğr. Üyesi, Ahmet Yesevi Üniversitesi,
Alyona BALTABAYEVA|524|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2CC BY-NC-ND 4.0olarak uygun bir biçimde gelişmiştir. Bununla birlikte düşünce yapısında Kuran’a dayanan ahlaki ve eğitici bir doğa ile hadislerönemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Süleyman Bakırgani’nin günümüze kadar ulaşan iki önemli eseri bulunmaktadır. Bunlardan birincisi “Bibi Meryam” mesnevisi ikincisi de “Ahir Zaman” (“Ahiret”) eseridir. Söz edilen eserlerde büyük edip Hakim Ata İslam dünyası görüşlerini, değer ve temellerini, Allahile mistik bir iletişim kurmanın yollarını, etik ve ahlaki konuları ortaya koymaktadır. Düşüncelerinin sunumunda Süleyman Bakırgani çok basitve daha çok halk Türkü şiir biçimlerini kullanmıştır. Halk tarafından çok sevilen SüleymanBakırganiile ilgili gerçeklerçeşitli efsaneler tarafındangölgelenmiş olduğu için onun hayatı ile tarihsel etkilerinin araştırılması özel bir önem taşımaktadır. Süleyman Bakırgani ve onun felsefi görüşleri tüm Türk dünyasının felsefi sisteminde özel bir yeralmaktadır. Özellikle vurgulanması gereken nokta, Bakırgani’ninkaleminden çıkan eserler ve ortaya koyduğu hikmetlerin Allah’a olan sevgiyle bağlantılı olmasıdır. Süleyman Bakırgani’nin eserlerinde dile getirilensevgi, aydınlanma ve manevi mükemmelliğe yol açan önemlibir araçtır.Süleyman Bakırgani’nin eserlerine atıfta bulunan: “Bibi Maryam”, “Akhyr zaman” ve bazı şiirsel talimatlar ve dualar günümüzde çok ilgili olan ahlak konularına değinmekte ve belki de bugün öncesine göre daha da önem kazanmaktadır.“Bibi Maryam” çalışmasında yer alan Meryem Ana imgesi hakkındaki görüşleri , Hıristiyan ve Müslüman halkların dini ve sanatsal edebiyatında merkezi yerlerden birini işgal etmektedir. Oldukça yalın bir dille kaleme alınan çalışmayaSüleyman Bakırgani,küçük bir giriş ilebaşlamakta veMeryem’in oğlu İsa’nın mucizevi doğumunu anlatmakta ve niteliklerini listelemektedir. “Yüce olanın gücünü göz önünde bulundurarak, bu hikayeyi yazdım ve onu saklamak imkansız. Bunu bana hediye etti. Meryem’in oğlu olan bu İsa, özel bir köleydi. Tanrı onu yüceltti, ona İncil’i (İncil) verdi. Azizlerin soyundan gelenler ve peygamberlerin başı olarak, Rab onun iyiliğini gösterdi ve O’na cennette bir yer verdi. İsa, bu dünyaya teslim olmayan, zenginliğin kalbine tutunmayan ve insanlar arasında yaşamayan elçiydi. Bu dünyayı terk ettim ve başka bir dünyayla tanışmaya hazırlandım; Rabbime itaat etti ve geceyi uyumaksızın geçirdim. Annesi Meryem’di ve babası hiçbir şekilde O’nunla birlikte değildi. O, rüzgarın (yani ruhun) doğduğu peygamberlerin
Süleyman Bakırgani’nin Dini ve Felsefi Yaratıcılığı|525|bilimnameXXXVI, 2018/2 CC BY-NC-ND 4.0efendisidir” (Matveev, 1895, s.20).Görüldüğü gibi Bakırgani’nin metni hem İncil ile hem de Kur’an ile semantik benzerliğe sahiptir, fakat bazı farklılıklar mevcuttur. Bu bölüm, İsa’nın kör ve topalları iyileştirmek, ölüleri kendi nefesiyle canlandırmak için olağanüstü yeteneklerinin sıralanmasıilesona ermektedir.Süleyman Bakırgani’nin, İslam, Hıristiyanlık ve kısmen Yahudilik dinlerinde ortak olan imge ve konulara defalarca dönüştüğünü belirtmek önemlidir. Üç inancın değişmez bileşenleri için bu arzu, Tasavvuf düşünürünün yaratıcılık etik ve hümanist odağı açısından karakteristik gibi görünmektedir.Süleyman Bakırgani’nin eserleri, İslami fikirlere uygun, parlak, sanatsal olarak özgün imgelerinin yaratılmasıyla değerli sayılır. Bu, sadece edebî öneme sahip değildi: Eskatolojik resimler, özellikle Bakirgani’nin yaşadığı ve çalıştığı dönemlerde etkili olan en güçlü ahlaki eğitim araçlarından biridir.Keywords:Din Felsefesi, Bakırgani, Felsefe, Hakim Ata, Yesevi, Tasavvuf.